Dr. Richard Lukenda
1093 Raritan Rd, Ste 1, Clark, New Jersey 07066


Abstraction - Loss of tooth surface at the cervical areas of teeth (near the gum line) caused by tensile and compressive forces during tooth flexure. These are wedge shaped notches involving enamel loss. They are susceptible to decay & can be extremely sensitive due to dentine exposure. May or may not require treatment depending on the extent

Abrasion - Abnormal loss of tooth structure due to non-masticatory friction such as using a hard toothbrush or improper brushing technique. Involved teeth may be cold or hot sensitive .Treatment involves correcting brushing technique, using a soft toothbrush and tooth coloured bond0ing

Abscess - A localized accumulation of pus caused by an infection. Once tooth decay infects the pulpal tissue inside the tooth, if left untreated will cause disintegration of the tissue and accumulation of pus in the pulpal and periapical tissues causing a periapical abscess.

Abutment - A tooth , root or implant used for support and retention of a fixed or removable prosthesis

Acetaminophen ( Tylenol-trade name ) – Non-nacrotic analgesic . Used in mild to moderate pain and fever

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) – disease caused by a retro-virus (HIV-1). Generalized lymphadenopathy, persistent fever, diarrhea and weight loss are some of the associated symptoms

Acromegaly – A hormone disorder caused by excess production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland . Characterized by enlargement of the hands, feet, jaws, spacing between teeth and deepening of the voice due to enlarged sinuses and vocal cords. Patients who wear dentures will have to frequently replace them due to the enlargement of the jaws

Acrylic resin - formed from acrylic acid. Used in dentistry to make denture teeth and temporary crowns

ADA - American Dental Association, professional organization for dentists in the United States of America

Adverse drug reaction - Harmful, unintended reaction to a drug administrated at a normal dosage

Aglossia - Developmental anomaly in which a portion or all of the tongue is absent

Alginate - Commercial varieties of alginate are extracted from seaweed. It absorbs water very quickly and is used in dentistry for making impressions

Allograft - Graft tissue obtained from human cadavers. (Genetically dissimilar members of the same species). Allografts go through a series of radiation, chemical and freezing processes and is prepared at tissue banks.

Alloplastic Grafts - Synthetic graft materials

Adhesive dentistry - contemporary term for dental restorations that involve "bonding" of composite resin or porcelain fillings to natural teeth

Air abrasion - removal of tooth structure by blasting a tooth with air and abrasive, a relatively new technology that may avoid the need for anesthetic

Allergy - unfavorable systemic response to a foreign substance or drug

Alveolar bone - the portion of the jaw bone that anchors the roots of teeth

Amalgam - most common filling material, also known as "silver fillings". It is an alloy of mercury (app 50%), silver, tin, copper and zinc. It does not chemically bond to the tooth structure and is not esthetic.

Analgesia - a state of pain relief; an agent lessening pain

Anesthesia - partial or complete elimination of pain sensation; numbing a tooth is an example of local anesthesia; general anesthesia produces partial or complete unconsciousness

Anterior teeth - the six upper or six lower front teeth

Antibiotic - a drug that stops or slows the growth of bacteria

ANUG - an acronym for Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis, commonly known as trench mouth or Vincent's disease, aggravated by stress and/or smoking. Characterized by small punched out ulcers of the gingival papillae

Apex - the tip of the root of a tooth

Apicoectomy - surgical removal of the root tip to treat a dead tooth

Arch - describes the alignment of the upper or lower teeth

Attrition - loss of structure due to natural wear

Augmentation - Placement of a graft or any procedure that corrects a soft (example - gums) or a hard tissue (example - Bone) deficiency.

Autogenous Graft - Graft material taken from one site and transplanted to another site in the same individual.

Base - cement placed under a dental restoration to insulate the pulp (nerve chamber) from temperature changes

Bicuspid or pre-molar - transitional teeth behind the cuspids . They usually have two cusps buccal and lingual cusps hence the name, bicuspids.

Bifurcation (trifurcation) - juncture of separation of two (three) roots from the root trunk in posterior teeth

Biopsy - removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination

Bioinert - Property of a material that elicits no reaction of the body such as immune response or inflammation

Biomaterial - Non-viable material used to replace part of the living system or function in contact with the living system

Biointegration - Bonding of living tissue to a biomaterial or implant

Bioabsorbable - Property of a material to degrade or dissolve inside the body by the body mechanisms.

Bite - relationship of the upper and lower teeth on closure (occlusion) to each other.

Bite wings - caries (decay) detection x-rays showing the crowns of the upper and lower molars in the section x-rayed.

Black hairy tongue - elongated papillae on the tongue, promoting the growth of microorganisms.

Bleaching - chemical or laser treatment of natural teeth for whitening effect.

Block injection -anesthesia of a nerve trunk that covers a large area of the jaw ; for example a mandibular block injection produces numbness of the lower jaw, teeth, half the tongue and lip on the side injected.

Block Graft - Autogenous bone or Bone Allograft stabilized in the recipient site with screws. Used when there is a huge bone defect.

Bonding - adhesive dental restoration technique; a tooth-colored composite resin to repair and/or change the color or shape of a tooth.

Bone resorption - decrease in bone supporting the roots of teeth; a common result of periodontal (gum) disease, caused by toxins released by the micro-organisms in plaque

Bone Augmentation - Procedure that corrects bone deficiency by using a graft.

Bone Atrophy - Decrease in dimension of bone due to bone loss.

Braces - devices used by orthodontists to gradually reposition teeth to a more favorable alignment

Bridge – fixed dental prosthesis replacing one or more missing teeth ; cemented or bonded to supporting teeth or implants adjacent to the space

Bruxism – involuntary, unconscious, destructive grinding of the teeth, most commonly while the patient is asleep. Characterized by extensive wear of teeth , sensitive teeth and soreness of jaw joints upon awakening

Bruxomania - persistent "nervous" grinding of the teeth while the patient is awake

CAD/CAM - Computer aided design/ computer aided manufacturing

Calcium - chemical element needed for healthy teeth, bones and nerves

Calculus - hard residue, commonly known as "tarter," that forms on teeth due to inadequate plaque control, often stained yellow or brown

Canker sore - mouth sore appearing whitish, often with a red halo, of ten to fourteen day duration . Also known as aphtous ulcers

Cantilever bridge - fixed bridge that attaches to adjacent teeth only on one end

Cap - common term for dental crown

Caries - tooth decay or "cavities"

Cast or model - reproduction of structures made by pouring plaster or stone into a mold or impression

CAT scan - Computed axial tomography scan. Helps in determining available bone for precise implant placement

Cavitron - dental tool that uses high frequency ultrasonic waves to clean teeth

Cellulitis - soft tissue infection causing extensive, hard swelling, a potentially dangerous condition requiring immediate attention. Can arise from an untreated tooth

Cementum - hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth

Chart - log of dental or medical records

Clasp – metal or acrylic part of a removable partial denture that hooks on to natural teeth to retain the partial in the mouth

Cleaning -removal of plaque and calculus (tarter) from teeth, generally above the gum line. Also referred to as Prophylaxis

Commercially pure titanium - Biocompatible metal commonly used for dental implants. It is an alloy of Titanium 99 wt. % and small amounts of oxygen with trace amounts of iron, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen.

Composite resin - material composed of plastic with small glass or ceramic particles; usually cured with filtered light or chemical catalyst

Complication - An unfavorable condition that may be reversible or irreversible. Cosmetic (aesthetic) dentistry - treatments performed to enhance appearance by altering the shape and color of the teeth

CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) - Artificial procedures employed by a rescuer after cessation of breathing or heart stoppage

Cross bite - reverse biting relationship of upper and lower teeth; the lower teeth are ahead of the upper teeth in their relationship

Crown - (1) the portion of a tooth above the gum line;
(2) dental restoration covering all or most of the natural tooth

Curettage - removal of diseased tissue from a periodontal pocket. Usually done in conjunction with scaling and root planning (deep cleaning)

Cusp - mound on posterior teeth

Cuspid or canine – transition from incisors to cusped teeth. Also called the eye teeth. They are the teeth with the longest roots and form the corners of the mouth

Cyst - a soft or hard tissue sac, hard or filled with fluid

DDS - Doctor of Dental Surgery - equivalent to DMD

DMD - Doctor of Medical Dentistry - equivalent to DDS

Decay -destruction of tooth structure caused by acids produced by plaque microorganisms

Deciduous teeth - commonly called "baby teeth," the first set of (usually) twenty teeth which begin to erupt at 5-6 months of age .Eruption is completed at the age of 21/2-3 years of age.

Delayed Loading - Refers to the time of applying force on an implant by means of a temporary prosthesis after initial placement. This time depends on the quality of bone and primary stability of the implant.

Dentin –inner sensitive layer of tooth structure, immediately under the surface enamel

Dental implant -a (usually) titanium cylinder surgically placed in the bone of the upper or lower jaw to provide support for a dental restoration or appliance

Dentition - the arrangement of natural or artificial teeth in the mouth

Denture - removable (partial or complete) set of artificial teeth

Diastema - space between teeth

Diagnostic wax-up - Laboratory procedure in which teeth are created in wax according to the planned restoration. It may be used to evaluate the feasibility of a proposed plan and to fabricate a radiographic template, a surgical guide, or laboratory guides.

Disuse Atrophy - Diminution in the density and/or dimension resulting from inactivity.

Donor Site - Area of the body from which graft is harvested

Enamel -hard tissue covering the outer portion of tooth above the gum line

Endodontist -specialist who diagnoses and treats injuries, diseases and infections of the tooth pulp (nerve chamber)

Epidemiology - study of the incidence of disease in a population

Eruption -process of teeth protruding through the gums

Exfoliate - process of shedding deciduous (baby) teeth

Exodontia - practice of dental extractions

Explorer - sharp instrument used to detect decay on the surface of teeth

Extraction - removal of a tooth usually elevators and forceps

Eyeteeth - the four upper and lower canine (cuspid) teeth

Facing - tooth colored overlay on the visible portion of a crown to alter the shape and color of the tooth; may be acrylic, composite or porcelain

Failed implant - An implant that is mobile and symptomatic.

Filling - restoration of lost tooth structure with metal, porcelain or resin materials to re-establish function and esthetics

Fistula - channel emanating pus from an infection site; a gum boil

Fixed Prosthesis - A restoration that is not removable by the patient.

Flap surgery - lifting of gum tissue to expose and clean underlying tooth and bone structures

Forceps - instrument used for removal of teeth

Forensic dentistry - practice of gathering legal evidence for body identification or judicial issues

Freeze - dried bone allograft - Bone harvested from donor cadavers, washed, immersed in ethanol, frozen in nitrogen, freeze dried and ground to similar particles ranging from 250-750 microns.

Full denture -removable dental prosthesis (appliance) replacing all upper or lower teeth

Full mouth reconstruction - extensive restorations of natural teeth with crowns and or fixed bridges/implants to re-establish normal relation of the teeth to each other and the jaws

Frenectomy - removal or reshaping of thin muscle tissue that attaches the upper or lower lips to the gum, or the tongue to the floor of the mouth

GTR - (guided tissue regeneration) a new technique for guiding bone growth and preventing epithelial ingrowths

General anesthesia - controlled state of unconsciousness, accompanied by a partial or complete loss of pain sensation, protective reflexes, and the ability to respond purposefully to physical stimulation or verbal command

Geographic tongue - benign changes in the usual color and texture of tongue; does not require treatment

Gingival - gum tissue

Gingivectomy - surgical removal of gum tissue

Gingivitis - inflammation of gum tissue

Grafting material - A substance natural or synthetic used to repair a tissue defect or deficiency

Gum recession - exposure of dental roots due to shrinkage of the gums as a result of abrasion, periodontal disease or surgery

HA -Hydroxyapatite

Halitosis -bad breath of oral or gastrointestinal origin

Heimlich Maneuver -technique employed by rescuer for obstruction of victim's airway

Hematoma -swelling of effused blood beneath tissue surface

HMO or DMO -health (dental) maintenance organization which specifies a health care (dental) provider a patient may see

Hygienist -dental auxiliary who cleans teeth and provides patient education; administers local anesthetic, nitrous oxide and performs periodontal scaling

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy -Treatment modality where a patient is placed in a pressurized chamber that allows for the delivery of oxygen in high concentrations for therapeutic purposes. It is sometimes used prior to implant therapy or extractions for patients who underwent radiation therapy in the head and neck areas to reduce the risks of osteoradionecrosis.

Hyperemia -increased blood flow to a region

Hyperplasia - Excessive enlargement of a tissue due to increase in the number of cells.

Immediate Implant Placement - Placement of an implant at the time of dental extraction into the extraction socket.

Impacted tooth - If a tooth fails to emerge or emerges partially and remains embedded in soft gingiva (gum) tissue or bone is wedged against another tooth beyond its normal eruption time it is impacted.

Implant Dentistry - Field of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, surgical placement, prosthetic reconstruction, and maintenance of dental implants

Implant - artificial titanium cylindrical device replacing tooth root; may anchor an artificial crown, bridge or denture

Implant supported prosthesis - A restoration that derives its entire support from dental implants.

Implant – tissue supported prosthesis - A prosthesis that derives its support from a combination of intra oral tissues and dental implants.

Impression - mold made of the teeth and soft tissues

Incision and drainage - surgical incision of an abscess to drain suppuration (pus)

Incisors - four upper and four lower front teeth, excluding the cuspids (canine teeth)

Infiltration -local anesthetic procedure effective for upper teeth, lower anterior teeth and soft tissue; involves placement of anesthetic under the gum, allowing it to seep into bone

Inlay - indirect - filling made by a dental laboratory that is cemented or bonded into place, direct - placement of dental composite resin restoration at chairside

Interproximal - surfaces of adjoining teeth

Interocclusal – space between upper and lower teeth

Intraoral camera - a small video camera used to view and magnify oral conditions;images may be printed

In vitro - Outside of the living organism or natural system

In vivo - Within the living organism or natural system

Isografts - A tissue graft transplanted from one genetically identical individual to another as in identical twins.

Jacket crown - crown for a front tooth, usually made of porcelain

Laminate -thin plastic or porcelain veneer produced in a dental laboratory and then bonded to a tooth

Laughing gas - nitrous oxide; odorless inhalation agent that produces relative analgesic (sedation); reduces anxiety and creates a state of relaxation

Lesion -injury of bodily tissue due to infection, trauma or tumor

Local anesthesia -partial or complete elimination of pain sensation by blocking nerve impulses

Malocclusion -"bad bite" or misalignment of the upper and lower teeth or jaw

Mandible -the lower jaw

Mandibular canal -is the canal within the mandible that houses the nerve and blood vessels that supply the lower jaw and teeth.

Maryland bridge -a bridge that is bonded to the back of the adjacent teeth; requires minimum tooth reduction .Usually used to replace a missing anterior tooth.

Mastication -process of chewing food

Maxilla -the upper jaw

Maxillary Sinus -Air cavity inside the body of the maxilla

Meniscus -capsular cushion between temporomandibular joint and glenoid fossa (part of the base of the skull)

Milk teeth -deciduous (baby) teeth

Molars – cusped (4-5 cusps) posterior teeth in each dental quadrant used for grinding food.

Moniliasis (thrush) - opportunistic fungal infection after prolonged administration of antibiotics ; not uncommon in the mouth

Mucogingival junction (MGJ) - junction of thick, attached gingival tissue around the teeth and the unattached loose mucous lining of the cheeks and lips

NSAID - non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, often used as a dental analgesic

Nerve - tissue that transmits sensation of temperature, pressure and position information to the brain

Nerve (root) canal - the internal chamber of a tooth which houses the nerve tissue

Nerve repositioning -Surgical procedure whereby the course of the nerve in the mandibular canal is redirected in order to place longer implants in a mandible where there is extensive loss of bone

Night guard - acrylic appliance used to prevent teeth wear and temporomandibular damage caused by grinding of the teeth during sleep

Nitrous oxide(laughing gas) - a gas used to reduce patient anxiety during dental treatment

Novocain - older brand name for a local anesthetic, currently replaced by safer, more effective agents

Occlusion - relationship of the upper and lower teeth upon closure

Onlay - laboratory processed porcelain or metal restoration covering one or more cusps of a tooth

Onlay graft - Autogenous or Bone replacement graft placed on existing bone to increase the width or height of bone

Oral and maxillofacial surgeon - a dental specialist with special training in surgery of the mouth and jaw. Diagnoses & surgical treats diseases, injuries, and deformities of the mouth and supporting structures; Requires four additional years of training after dental school

Oral cavity - the mouth

Oral hygiene - The practice of keeping the mouth, teeth, and gums clean and healthy to prevent disease, as by regular brushing and flossing and visits to a dentist.

Oral and maxillofacial surgery - surgical procedures on the mouth including extractions, removal of cysts or tumors, and repair of fractured jaws

Oral pathologist - dentist specializing in the study of oral diseases

Oral Pathology - A branch of dentistry that is concerned with the diseases of the teeth, oral cavity, and jaws, and with the oral manifestations of systemic diseases. Oral pathology is the specialty of dentistry which deals with the nature, identification, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. It is a science that investigates the causes, processes and effects of these diseases.

O-ring - Doughnut shaped over denture attachment that possess the ability to bend and return to its approximate original shape

Orthodontics - dental specialty that treats mal -alignment of teeth and jaws

Osseous – bone

Osteonecrosis - Death or necrosis of bone

Osteoradionecrosis - Bone necrosis caused by excessive exposure to radiation

Overbite - vertical overlap of the front teeth

Overdenture - denture that fits over residual roots or dental implants and provides added retention to the denture

Overjet – horizontal overlap of the front teeth

Palate - hard and soft tissue forming the roof of the mouth

Palliative treatment - non invasive treatment for pain relief

Panoramic Radiograph - A radiographic view showing both the entire upper and the lower jaw in one film

Parasthesia - tingling, pricking, or numbness sensation (altered sensation)of a person's skin , more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles; may be temporary or permanent

Partial denture - removable dental prosthesis (appliance) replacing one or more natural teeth

Pathology - study of disease onset, course and duration

Periapical (PA) - region at the end of the roots of teeth

Peri-implantitis - Inflammatory reactions in the hard and soft tissues surrounding an implant exposed to the oral environment.

Periodontal surgery - recontouring or esthetic management of diseased gum and supporting tissue

Periodontist - dental specialist treating the gums and supporting soft and hard tissues retaining natural teeth and the surgical placement of dental implants

Pedodontics or pediatric dentistry - dental specialty specializing in the treatment of children

Periodontal chart – chart used to record pocket depths measurements around the teeth

Permanent teeth – second and final set of teeth in humans ; (usually) thirty-two adult teeth in a complete dentition

Pit - a small defect in the tooth enamel; junction of four formative lobes of a developing tooth

Placebo - inert medication or treatment that produces psychological benefit

Plaque - soft sticky substance that accumulates on teeth; composed of bacteria and food debris due to inadequate dental hygiene

Pontic – artificial tooth replacing one or two missing teeth ; part of a fixed bridge

Porcelain crown - all porcelain restoration covering the coronal portion of tooth (above the gum line) to reestablish function and esthetics

Porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown - restoration with metal coping (for strength) covered by porcelain (for appearance)

Porcelain inlay or onlay – lab processed tooth-colored restoration made of porcelain, cemented or bonded in place

Porcelain veneers - a thin layer of porcelain, fabricated by a laboratory bonded to a natural tooth to replace lost tooth structure, close spaces, straighten teeth or change color and/or shape

Post - thin metal or fiber rod inserted into the root of a tooth after root canal therapy; provides retention for a "coping" that replaces lost tooth structure and retains crown

Post-core - post and buildup to replace lost tooth structure and retain crown

PPO or PDO - preferred provider (dental) organization which a health care (dental) provider may join, offering fee for service treatment at reduced fees

Prognosis - the anticipated outcome of treatment

Progressive loading - Gradual increase in the application of load on a prosthesis and thus on the implant

Prophylaxis – regular routine cleaning of the teeth for the prevention of periodontal disease and tooth decay

Prosthesis - An artificial replacement of a missing part of the body

Prosthodontist - dental specialist skilled in restoring or replacing teeth with fixed or removable prosthesis (appliance), maintaining proper occlusion; treats facial deformities with artificial prostheses such as eyes, ears, and noses

Pulp - the nerves, blood vessels and connective tissue inside a tooth

Pulp cap - a medicated covering over a small area of exposed pulp tissue to aid healing

Pulp chamber - the center or innermost portion of the tooth containing the pulp

Pulpectomy - complete removal of the infected pulp

Pulpitis - inflammation of the pulp; common cause of toothache; could be reversible or irreversible

Pulpotomy - partial removal of the pulp tissue commonly done in children teeth

Pyorrhea - older term for periodontal (gum) disease

Reimplantation – re-insertion and temporary fixation of partially or completely avulsed tooth or teeth back into the socket , resulting from traumatic injury

Reline - acrylic restoration of denture base to compensate for bone lossand soft tissue remolding ; direct: done at chairside(soft reline); indirect: in conjunction with a dental laboratory(lab reline )

Resorption - The loss of substance or bone by physiological or pathological means

Retained root - partial root structure remaining in jaw after extraction or fracture of a natural tooth

Ridge - The remainder of the alveolar process (socket) after tooth extraction

Ridge Preservation (extraction socket graft) - The immediate placement of a graft material in an extraction socket following removal of a tooth. This helps to preserve bone and soft tissue architecture

Root canal – interior canal system of the tooth

Root canal therapy - process of removing pulp of a tooth and filling it with an inert material

Root resection - removal of a portion of diseased root structure, retaining the remaining natural tooth

Rubber dam - soft latex sheet used to establish isolation of one or more teeth from contamination by oral fluids and to keep materials from falling to the back of the throat

Saliva - clear lubricating protective fluid in the mouth containing water, enzymes, bacteria, mucus, viruses, blood cells and undigested food particles

Saliva ejector - suction tube placed in the mouth to remove saliva and blood

Salivary glands – glands located under tongue and in cheeks, produce saliva to lubricate the mouth and act on food to start the digestive process

Scaling and root planning – professional removal of plaque and calculus from tooth surfaces using hand instruments and ultrasonic devices

Sealants - thin resin material bonded in the pits and fissures of back teeth for the prevention of decay

Secondary dentin - reparative tooth structure produced by the pulp in response to tooth irritation

Sequstrum - loosened spicule of bone pushed to the surface

Sinus Graft - Grafting the maxillary sinus with autogenous bone or bone replacement graft material to facilitate the placement of longer length implants

Sinusitis - infammation of the sinus that may mimic dental pain in the upper teeth

Sinusitis (maxillary) - Inflammation of the sinus. Signs include sensitivity of the teeth to tapping, fever and facial swelling. Symptoms includes nasal congestion, post- nasal discharge, bad taste in the mouth, mouth odor, popping of the ears and muffled hearing

Sleep apnea - the periodic interruption or delay in breathing during sleep

Space maintainer - dental device that holds the space lost through premature loss of baby teeth until the eruption of the permanent teeth

Supernumerary tooth - extra tooth

Splinting - Joining of two or more teeth or implants into a rigid or non-rigid unit by means of a fixed or removable restoration

Suppuration - the formation of pus

Stent - A device used in conjunction with a surgical procedure to keep the graft in place or protect a surgical site during the initial healing period

Tartar - common term for dental calculus, a hard calcified deposit that adheres to teeth; produces rough surface that attracts plaque

Tissue bank - Laboratory specialized in the harvesting, processing, and sterilization of tissues from humans and animals

Tmd (or tmj disorder) - temperomandibular disorder; term given to condition characterized by facial pain and restricted ability to open or move the jaw

Tmj - the temporomandibular joint, the point where the lower jaw articulates with the skull

Tooth bud - early embryonic structure that differentiates into a tooth

Tooth whitening - a chemical or laser process to lighten the color of teeth

Topical anesthetic – gel that produces mild anesthesia when applied to tissue surface aiding painless penetration of the anesthetic needle for profound dental anesthesia

Torus – benign bony protuberance on the palate or lower jaw seen in some people

Transplant - placing a natural tooth in the empty socket of another tooth

Trench mouth - gum disease characterized by severe mouth ulcers ,halitosis and loss of tissue. See ANUG.

Tuberosity (maxillary) - It is the most distal portion of the maxillary ridge bilaterally. It may be used as a source of bone graft or serve as support for a prosthesis

UCR - usual, customary and reasonable fees

Unerupted tooth - a tooth that has not pushed through the gum and assumed its correct position in the dental arch

Veneer – thin composite or porcelain facing bonded directly to a natural tooth to improve its color and appearance. See laminate.

Vertical dimension - distance between two fixed points on the upper and lower jaws measured upon closure at rest(no contact of teeth ) or at occlusion (maximum intercuspation of teeth ) may decrease over time due to wear, shifting or damage to the teeth

Wisdom teeth - third (last) molars that usually erupt at age 18-25

Xenografts - Graft material harvested from different species mainly bovine

Xerostomia - dry mouth or decrease in the production of saliva

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